- Script - the dialogue or narration
- Story Board - a large board with pictures of the planned movie
- Sequence - the number of shots for each event in the film
- Shot - the basic unit of film structure - the picture
- Establishing - shows the time and place or sets the mood of the film
- Long Shot - picture from a distance
- Medium Shot - picture from a middle distance
- Close-up - picture from a short distance
- Low Angle - picture looking up from the ground
- High Angle - picture from the air looking down
- One-Two-Three - first show one object or person, then two, then three
- Slow Motion - slowed down action
- Fast Action - speeded up action
- Rack Focus Shot - this is a shot where two objects are in the picture; one is in focus, the other is not. The action of the shot is when the other object is brought into focus and the first one is taken out of focus.
- Panning - shot where the camera swivels on a fixed base
- Tilt - picture shot either up or down on a fixed base
- Dolly - camera moves with the action on a base that also moves
- Boom - camera moves up and down with the action
- Stop-action or Freeze Frame - all action is stopped
- Pixilation - each frame is photographed separately then put together with the effect of action continuing and parts left out.
- Sync Sound - the sound is recorded with the movie
- Voice Over - the sound is recorded and later added to the movie
- Sound Effects - sounds to produce moods or create a particular atmosphere
Putting together in sequence all the footage (film) that has been shot
- Straight Cut - the first and second scenes are directly together
- Fade Out - Fade In - the picture from the first scene is faded out and the picture of the second scene is faded in. This type of editing shows the passage of time.
- Dissolve - one picture "melts" into the next
- Superimposition - one picture is directly on top of another
Green screens are used in the movies to make it look like the actors are driving across the desert, and it's used on TV to make it look like your local news announcer is standing in front of an animated weather map.
Create a Green Screen in your Classroom Scholastic
Do Ink App
Four Tips for Green Screens in the Classroom
Green Screen Technology
TechSmith Blog: How to make a Green Screen
MAKING A MOVIE
I. Production Staff
It is essential for the entire group to work as a team. Each group can be divided up into teams of two in order to plan, write, and technically produce the movie. Each team of two is responsible for a certain aspect of the movie such as script, camera, sound, etc. When these teams of two put everything together, one large unified group team is formed
- Director - person who guides the entire production and makes certain the Groups' ideas are put together in a logical way.
- Assistant Director
Read over the story. Decide what kind of script you would like to have written and work with the script writers. Work with all other teams and assist them with decisions such as camera shots, sound effects, etc. Hold tryouts for characters of the movie.
- Script Writer - writes the dialogue and narrative for the movie. They also work with other teams such as props,, cameraman, and sound operator so these individuals will know how to prepare. Special Assignment: Read over the story. Use this story as a basis for your dialogue and narration. Make a story board and synopsis, including all characters. Add stage directions, sound effects, props, and any dialogue you think would add to the story. Mark all cues.
- Cameraman - person who is responsible for putting on film the visual image defined by the script. They also must set the lens, focus and frame the picture according to the shots. Special Assignment: Read over the story. Then work with the director and assistant director on different kinds of shots. Learn how to operate the camera and practice different kinds of shots. Make a shooting script with the help of the director.
- Sound Operator- person responsible for making certain the proper level of sound is recorded and responsible for sound effects. Special Assignment: Read over the story. Learn how to operate the sound system. Be sure all microphones and tape recorders are in working order. Work with the director and assistant director to determine what sound effects will be needed. Record these in order of how they will be heard during the movie.
- Props - person responsible for making certain all props are in the proper location; also responsible for drawing and painting the background. Special Assignment: Read over the story. Work with the director and assistant director to dedecide on what props and background scenery will be needed. Make a list of all the supplies you will need. Construct all the background and props.
- Costume and Makeup - person responsible for each actor's proper dress for each scene of the movie and any makeup which might be needed. Special Assignment: Read over the story. Work with the director and assistant director to decide what costumes and makeup will be needed. Make a list of all the supplies you will need. Experiment with costumes and makeup until it fits the characters in the movie.
- Actors or Characters - people responsible for learning dialogue and acting out a particular role in the movie.
- Film Editor - person who keeps records of all the takes; the position of the actors and props and whatever is necessary for a retake; is also responsible for putting the film together. Special Assignment: Read over the story. Read the script. During the shooting make careful notes on locations of cameras, kinds of shots, and positions of characters for any retakes. When the movie is completed determine which takes will be used and splice together the film in the correct sequence. Work with the director and assistant director when doing this.
II. Planning the Movie
1. Decide on the theme (Examples Below)
- Story - Comedy, Horror, Science Fiction, Mystery, Adventure
2. The theme should be developed. Decide on the continuity as to how each frame should follow in sequence with the next.
3. Make a brief synopsis of what will be needed for making the movie. What is the setting? How long will each scene last? Who are the characters? What are the lighting conditions? What sound effects will be needed? What props are needed?
4. A script should be written and put together on a story board. Incorporate the theme or main idea and the synopsis.
5. Make a shooting script - a brief outline of the order in which you will shoot the movie.
III. SCRIPT WRITING
1. Keep things simple.
2. Is the idea you wish to convey feasible ? Keep in mind scenery, costumes, and the camera's capability.
3. Make your script interesting. Does the script hit a personal note with others ? Do other people understand and relate to the script?
4. The script must be complete before going into production. The script is your guide. Without it, you will have chaos. It can be changed to accommodate difficulties you did not foresee while you are filming; but you must have a script to begin. It is the most important part of the project.
IV. Shooting the Movie
1. All the individual teams come together with their individual work.
2. Rehearsals are held to be certain the equipment is operating, the props are in place, the actors are prepared, etc.
3. The movie is shot according to the shooting script, including any retakes.
4. Use the production sheet to keep track of the movie.
V. Editing the Movie
- All the footage is put together in sequential order.
- View the uncut film 2 or 3 times. Using your production sheet, mark which takes of the scene you wish to keep. Also mark which scenes will be retakes.
- Use only that film which is needed to communicate the story.
- Create pace by varying the length, distance, angle, and movement of individual shots. The way these shots are put together will create the action.
- Edit the film.
- Add credits and titles last.
VI. The Finished Movie
- May be shown to individual classes or the entire school. Admission might be charged to defray costs of production.
- Local news coverage of project.
A basic digital sound movie camera with zoom lens and fade is all you really need to produce a film. Be certain you keep a few basic photographic techniques in mind.
- Set up the shot before you film. Make a dry run (without film). Time the scene.
- When shooting outside keep the sun at your back unless you are doing some kind of special effect.
- Keep the scene simple. Complicated or cluttered scenes only make it more difficult to film.
- Use a tripod most of the time. It keeps the camera in one position for easier handling.
- There should be continuity of direction from one scene to the next. Keep the characters moving in the same direction. Do not move the camera across an invisible line or plane.
- Use the production sheet.
Illustrated Camera Shots (PDF)
A WORD ON SOUND
The production of good audible outdoor sound on the film cartridge is difficult to achieve. There are several reasons for this. Some examples are wind, street noise, and airplanes. Remote microphones might help this situation or the extension of microphone cable so that the mikes are closer to the subjects. The problem is not as great when filming inside. You may wish to film and add sound at a later date or attempt dubbing.
MAKEUP AND COSTUME
- Make a list of all the characters and describe how each one should look and what they should wear. You may want to research some costume books.
- Make a list of materials needed. This includes makeup supplies and necessary costumes.
- Design and make any costumes needed.
- Buy all materials at one time.
- Experiment with makeup before the actual filming.
- Allow at least one hour to do the makeup for each actor. Each person will have one or two characters to makeup.
BASIC MAKEUP KIT
- Ben Nye Student Theatrical Stage Makeup Kits
- Deluxe Student Theatrical Makeup Kit Light/Fair Walmart
VIDEO EDITING SOFTWARE
Create a great looking video, even if you’ve never made one before. Camtasia makes it easy to record your screen or import your own video and audio files (MP4, WMV, MOV, AVI, etc.).Then make your edits and create your video.
Video editing for the McIntosh that includes layers, sound tracks, and special effects.
3. Photos - Microsoft
Photos makes it easy to quickly create videos in the classroom Introducing Photos, a brand new video creator coming in the Windows 10 Fall Creators Update.
Photos is designed to inspire educators and students to easily create and tell stories using photos, videos, and music.